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## 20.1. Kinetic and Potential Energy

Dan: I am glad that we now got a few second-order integration schemes. They surely are a lot more efficient than the first-order forward Euler scheme we started with!

Erica: Definitely. For the same amount of computer time, the accuracy of second-order schemes is much higher. You know, it would be nice to quantify that notion, to show exactly how accurate each scheme really is.

Carol: We have done something like that already, by checking how the endpoint of an orbit converged to a specific value, for smaller and smaller time steps.

Erica: Yes, but in that case we always needed two different choices of the time step, for two different integrations, so that we could compare the distance between the two end points. I would prefer to use a measure that tells us how good a single orbit calculation is. And this is indeed what astronomers do when they compute orbits: they pick a physical quantity that should be conversed, and they use that to get an impression of the size of the numerical errors.

Dan: What sort of quantities do you have in mind?

Erica: The typical conserved quantities for a system of interacting particles are energy and angular momentum. Of these, energy is a scalar and angular momentum is a vector. Therefore, for simplicity, people generally like to measure the change in energy, in order to get an idea of the errors introduced during orbit integration.

Dan: Okay, let's write a method to check energy conservation. For a system of two particles, how do you write down the total energy?

Erica: There are two contributions. There is the energy of motion, also called kinetic energy. This energy depends only on the speed of each particle. For a particle with mass and velocity , the kinetic energy is

And then there is the energy that is given by the gravitational interaction between the particles. This is called the gravitational potential energy. For each pair of particles, say and , the gravitational potential energy is given by

where is the distance between the two particles.

Dan: Why is there a minus sign?

Erica: The gravitational potential energy is normally chosen to be zero when the two particles are very far away from each other, which makes sense, since in that case there is almost no gravitational interaction. Indeed, in our expression above, for you can see that .

It is clear from the definition of that the kinetic energy for each particle is always positive or zero. This implies, because the total energy is conserved, that the potential energy has to be zero or negative.

For example, if you place two particles at rest at a very large distance, the kinetic energy is zero and the potential energy is almost zero as well. Then, when the particles start falling toward each other, the kinetic energy gets larger and larger, and therefore more and more positive. The only way that the total energy can be conserved is for the potential energy to become more and more negative.

## 20.2. Relative Coordinates

Carol: In our computer programs we have used the one-body representation, using the relative separation and relative velocity , rather than the individual positions and velocities of the particles. So we have to rewrite your expressions.

We can use Eq. (36). When we differentiate that equation with respect to time, we get:

When we substitute these values in Eq. (95), we get

As for the potential energy, using Eq. (94), we get:

and this expression already uses relative coordinates only.

In our case, we have decided to use units in which , so the last two expressions simplify to:

The total energy, which is conserved, is then

## 20.3. Specific Energies

Carol: That's a bit annoying, to see that factor coming in. So far, we did not have to specify the masses of the stars. Our equation of motion for Newtonian gravity, Eq. (40) contained only the sum of the masses. So when we choose that sum to be unity, the equation became simply Eq. (42), and we had gotten rid of any mention of masses.

In other words, whether we had equal masses, , whether we took one mass to be three times as large as the other, , in both cases the orbits would be exactly the same. However, you are now telling us that the total energy will be different for those two cases. In the first case, the factor whereas in the second case, it becomes , a smaller value.

It seems that when we want to measure energy conservation, we have to make an extra choice, for example by specifying the ratio of the two masses.

Dan: But the only thing we care about is whether the energy is conserved. All we want to know whether the term between parentheses in Eq. (101) remains constant, or almost constant. Who cares about the funny factor in front?

Erica: Well, yes, I basically agree, but let us try to be a bit more precise, in describing what we do. To make things clear, let me go back to our earlier description, which still contains the total mass and the gravitational constant. If you look at the text books, you will find that they introduce the so-called reduced mass , defined as:

As you can see, it has indeed the physical dimension of mass: two powers of mass divided by one power leaves mass to the power one. The total mass can be written as simply

In terms of these two quantities, we can define our two energies as:

and

So this looks like the motion of a pseudo particle with mass , moving in the gravitational field of another particle with mass . The total energy is given by

We can now define the specific energy as the energy per unit mass for the pseudo particle:

and

and with our convention , we find for the specific total energy:

This is exactly the expression in parentheses in the right-hand side of Eq. ((unknown label )), which Dan wanted to use. And now we have a name for it: the specific energy, defined as the energy per unit reduced mass.

Dan: Well, name or no name, let's see whether it is actually conserved reasonably well in our calculations.

## 20.4. Diagnostics

Carol: Let us start with our simplest vector code, euler_vector.rb, and let us add some nice diagnostics. We definitely want to check to what extent the total energy is constant, but I would also like to see how the kinetic and potential energy are varying.

To begin with, let me define a method energies which returns all three energies, kinetic, potential and total, in one array:

``` def energies(r,v)
ekin = 0.5*v*v
epot = -1/sqrt(r*r)
[ekin, epot, ekin+epot]
end
```

Erica: Specific energies, that is.

Carol: Yes, but I don't feel that it is necessary to add that to the method name.

Dan: I knew you would get tired of long names!

Carol: Only if there is no danger for confusion. In this case, we're not going to mix specific and absolute energies -- and if we ever do, we can always make the name longer again.

Next I would like to write a method that prints diagnostics, let me just call it print_diagnostics, that will print out all three energies.

Erica: But what we really need is to know the deviation from the original energy value, to test energy conservation.

Carol: You're right. So that means that we had better measure the energy right from the start, and then remember that value. Let us call the initial energy e0.

Dan: That's almost too short a name, for my taste!

Carol: I was just trying to see how far I could push your taste! Now we can use the method above, picking out the last array element using the Array method last, to find the initial total energy

``` e0 = energies(r,v).last
```

before we enter the integration loop.

Now let me think a bit carefully about the layout that print_diagnostics should follow. We probably only need three significant digits for the relative energy change. That will be good enough to see how good or bad our energy conservation is. In Ruby you can use a C like notation to fix the output format, using expressions like printf("%.3g", x) to print the value of a floating point variable x with three significant digits.

Actually, what I will do is use sprintf instead of printf, which prints the same information onto a string, rather than directly onto the output channel. That way, I can use the Ruby print command, which takes multiple arguments. If x contains the number , say, then writing

``` print "x = ", sprintf("%.3g\n", x)
```
gets translated into

``` print "x = ", "3.14\n"
```
and since print just concatenates its argument, this would give the same result as typing

``` print "x = 3.14\n"
```
so you should see

``` x = 3.14
```
on the screen, where I have added the new line character \n for good measure, to let the next prompt appear on a new line.

Hmmm, this ought to do it. Here is the whole code:

``` require "vector.rb"
include Math

def energies(r,v)
ekin = 0.5*v*v
epot = -1/sqrt(r*r)
[ekin, epot, ekin+epot]
end

def print_pos_vel(r,v)
r.each{|x| print(x, "  ")}
v.each{|x| print(x, "  ")}
print "\n"
end

def print_diagnostics(r,v,e0)
ekin, epot, etot = energies(r,v)
STDERR.print "  E_kin = ", sprintf("%.3g, ", ekin)
STDERR.print "E_pot = ", sprintf("%.3g; ", epot)
STDERR.print "E_tot = ", sprintf("%.3g\n", etot)
STDERR.print "            E_tot - E_init = ", sprintf("%.3g, ", etot-e0)
STDERR.print "(E_tot - E_init) / E_init = ", sprintf("%.3g\n", (etot-e0)/e0)
end

r = [1, 0, 0].to_v
v = [0, 0.5, 0].to_v
dt = 0.01
e0 = energies(r,v).last

print_pos_vel(r,v)
print_diagnostics(r,v,e0)
1000.times{
r2 = r*r
r3 = r2 * sqrt(r2)
a = -r/r3
r += v*dt
v += a*dt
print_pos_vel(r,v)
}
print_diagnostics(r,v,e0)
```

## 20.5. Checking Energy

Dan: What does STDERR mean, in front of the print statements?

Carol: That means that the information will be printed on the standard error stream. By default, information will be printed on the standard out stream. These are the two main output streams in Unix.

Dan: Why is it called error stream?

Carol: If you have a lot of output, you want to redirect that to a file. But if something suddenly goes wrong, you would like to be warned about that on the screen. You certainly don't want a warning message or error message to be mixed in with all the other stuff in the output file; you might never notice it there.

In our case, I would like to use this error channel to report on the behavior of the energies. In fact, we want to determine the energy errors, so it is somewhat appropriate to use the error stream, even though the name suggests that it is normally used to report real errors. But why not? We will use it here to report on small numerical errors.

Dan: So you report the values of the various energy contributions only at the beginning and at the end of the run.

Carol: For now, that is good enough. At least it's a start. But let me check to see whether all this works. We don't need the positions and velocities for now, so I will redirect those to our waste basket /dev/null

``` |gravity> ruby euler_energy_try1.rb > /dev/null
E_kin = 0.125, E_pot = -1; E_tot = -0.875
E_tot - E_init = 0, (E_tot - E_init) / E_init = -0
E_kin = 0.495, E_pot = -0.101; E_tot = 0.394
E_tot - E_init = 1.27, (E_tot - E_init) / E_init = -1.45
```
Dan: That does look pretty, I must say. But look, the energy is totally different, at the beginning and at the end of the run.

Erica: As it should be: remember, this was our very first run, when we used a time step that was too big to integrate an elliptic orbit! We made a huge error at pericenter. In fact, we can now see that the energy changed sign. We started with a bound orbit, with a total energy that was negative. But at the end of the integration the energy has become positive! That means that the particles can escape to infinity.

Carol: Why is that?

Erica: When the particles are very far away from each other, the potential energy becomes negligible, and the energy is dominated by the kinetic energy. Since kinetic energy cannot be negative, such a wide separation is impossible if the total energy is negative. But for zero or positive total energy, there is nothing that can prevent the two particles to fly away from each other completely. And clearly, that is what happened here, as a result of numerical errors.

Dan: Before drawing too many conclusions, we'd better check whether we still are talking about the same orbit as we did before.

Carol: My pleasure. Here is what the old code gave:

``` |gravity> ruby euler_vector.rb > euler_vector.out
1  0  0  0  0.5  0
|gravity> tail -1 euler_vector.out
7.6937453936572  -6.27772005661599  0.0  0.812206830641815  -0.574200201239989  0.0
```
And here is what the diagnostics produces, also at the very beginning and end of the output file:

``` |gravity> ruby euler_energy_try1.rb > euler_energy_try1.out
E_kin = 0.125, E_pot = -1; E_tot = -0.875
E_tot - E_init = 0, (E_tot - E_init) / E_init = -0
E_kin = 0.495, E_pot = -0.101; E_tot = 0.394
E_tot - E_init = 1.27, (E_tot - E_init) / E_init = -1.45
1  0  0  0  0.5  0
|gravity> tail -1 euler_energy_try1.out
7.6937453936572  -6.27772005661599  0.0  0.812206830641815  -0.574200201239989  0.0
```
Dan: Good! Exactly the same.

## 20.6. Error Growth

Erica: We know that our first orbit integration produced large errors, and we have quantified that by looking at the final energy error, at the end of our orbit integration. But it would be a lot more instructive to see how the energy error is growing in time.

Carol: Easily done: in file euler_energy_try2.rb, I will modify our print_pos_vel method to include the total energy value as well, calling it print_pos_vel_energy instead:

``` def print_pos_vel_energy(r,v,e0)
r.each{|x| print(x, "  ")}
v.each{|x| print(x, "  ")}
etot = energies(r,v).last
print (etot-e0)/e0
print "\n"
end
```

As you can see, I am printing the energy last, after the positions and velocities. And of course, in the code I'm replacing the old name by the new name in the two invocations, just before entering the loop and at the end of the loop. Let's run it:

``` |gravity> ruby euler_energy_try2.rb > euler_energy_try2.out
E_kin = 0.125, E_pot = -1; E_tot = -0.875
E_tot - E_init = 0, (E_tot - E_init) / E_init = -0
E_kin = 0.495, E_pot = -0.101; E_tot = 0.394
E_tot - E_init = 1.27, (E_tot - E_init) / E_init = -1.45
1  0  0  0  0.5  0  -0.0
|gravity> tail -1 euler_energy_try2.out
7.6937453936572  -6.27772005661599  0.0  0.812206830641815  -0.574200201239989  0.0  -1.45027113997184
```
Erica: I don't like the way these numbers are rolling on and on. We don't really need that much precision in the positions and velocities, if we just want to make a pretty picture. Four or five digits should be more than enough.

Carol: That's easy to fix. In file euler_energy_try3.rb I will change the frequent output method as follows:

``` def print_pos_vel_energy(r,v,e0)
r.each{|x| printf("%.5g  ", x)}
v.each{|x| printf("%.5g  ", x)}
etot = energies(r,v).last
print (etot-e0)/e0
print "\n"
end
```

This should look better now:

``` |gravity> ruby euler_energy_try3.rb > euler_energy_try3.out
E_kin = 0.125, E_pot = -1; E_tot = -0.875
E_tot - E_init = 0, (E_tot - E_init) / E_init = -0
E_kin = 0.495, E_pot = -0.101; E_tot = 0.394
E_tot - E_init = 1.27, (E_tot - E_init) / E_init = -1.45
1  0  0  0  0.5  0  -0.0
|gravity> tail -1 euler_energy_try3.out
7.6937  -6.2777  0  0.81221  -0.5742  0  -1.45027113997184
```

## 20.7. Pericenter Troubles

Carol: Let's figure out what magic incantations gnuplot wants us to give it, to plot the energy as a function of time. To start with, let me remember how we have plotted the orbit. Ah yes, we have been using the fact that gnuplot use the first two columns, if you don't specify anything otherwise. Instead of relaying on that default choice, let's plot the orbit again, this time giving gnuplot explicit instructions to use the data from columns 1 and 2:

``` |gravity> gnuplot
gnuplot> set size ratio -1
gnuplot> plot "euler_energy_try3.out" using 1:2
gnuplot> quit

```
So this gives figure 43, and indeed, it looks just like before, when we produced figure 18.

Now to make Carol happy, we will plot the values of the total energy, which reside in column 7.

Dan: But wait, that is different. First we were plotting y as a function of x. Now you are going to plot the energy E as a function of what? Of time, I guess.

Carol: Yes, that would be the most obvious choice. And because we are using constant time steps, that boils down to plotting E as a function of output number, if we number the output lines successively. And indeed, gnuplot does have a way to use the output line number as the thing to plot along the horizontal axis: if you specify the value 0 as a column number, the output line number will be used.

Dan: Ah, that makes sense, and that is easy to remember. If you have an output line that reads, say, in the first three columns:

``` 8 20 3
4 5 6
9 2 1
...
```
then it is as if gnuplot itself adds the line numbers to the left:

``` 1 8 20 3
2 4 5 6
3 9 2 1
...
```
and now the column numbering starts at 0 instead of at 1.

Carol: Yes, come to think of it, that must be the reason they introduced that notation. Well, let me try:

``` |gravity> gnuplot
gnuplot> set size ratio -1
gnuplot> plot "euler_energy_try3.out" using 0:7
gnuplot> quit
```
Erica: Beautiful! Just as we expected, the main error is generated when the two stars pass close to each other, at pericenter. But I had not expected the error to be so sensitive to the distance between the stars. The error is generated almost instantaneously!

Carol: Why would that be?

Erica: When the two stars come closer, the orbit becomes more curved, and in addition, the speed becomes larger. So for both reasons, there is more of a change in the orbit during a constant interval in time. It would be great if we could use a smaller time step during pericenter passage, and I'm sure we'll get to that point, later on. But for now, as long as we are using constant time steps, a higher speed means that each step will cover a larger distance in space. So we are in a situation that we are actually taking longer steps in space exactly there where the orbit is curved most.

Dan: Not a good thing to do.

Erica: I agree, but it's the simplest thing to do. We can later try to be more clever.
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