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## 2.1. One Force Evaluation per Step

Alice: So far, we have used up to two force calculations per time step, independently of what has been done in the previous time step. As we discussed before, there are situations in which we can recycle a previous force calculation.

would it be possible to use the force evaluation of the first step, and to recycle its use, to let it function as the contribution to the second step?

Bob: Not really, no. At least, I don't think so. The first force calculation for the second step will be evaluated at , the end point of the first step. However, the last force calculation for the first step was not evaluated at that exact point. Rather it was evaluated at the point that was reached by using only the information given by .

Alice: In general, you must be right. But let's not jump to conclusions; the whole point of our systematic approach is to really make sure that our hunches are correct, by deriving everything to the point of reaching absolute certainty.

Bob: what you call systematic others may call tedious, or worse.

Alice: So be it; I just want to be sure. So, for recycling to work in the strict sense, the position at which is calculated during the first step should coincide with the position at which needs to be calculated during the second step. Let us define that first position as , which means that , which implies

Recycling the last force calculation from the first step, in order to use it for the second step, requires that :

or

or

Since our algorithm should work for any force , this expression should hold for arbitrary values of and . If we first look at the dependence on , we find and therefore . But this then implies that , which is not true in general.

So here is the formal check that your hunch was right!

Bob: This result is not surprising, when we reflect on what it means: if the equality would hold exactly, there would be no reason to compute the last force evaluation. For this reason, there should not be any Runge-Kutta scheme that allows strict recycling of a force evaluation, come to think of it.

## 2.2. What is Good Enough?

Alice: That must be right. The best we can hope for is that is reasonably accurate as a predicted value, good enough, so to speak. Now the question is whether we can find a precise meaning for `good enough.' What does it mean for not to differ too much from the corrected value ?

Bob: Lookinging at Eq. (42) as a physicist, rather than a mathematician, I would start by noting that , at least in the limit of a small time step. This suggests that the best we can do is to let the right hand side disappear, through the choice . In that case, the left-hand side will still not be exactly zero, but it will be small.

Alice: Even though you're a physicist, you should at least show that this choice brings and close together. Handwaving alone is certainly not good enough!

Bob: Okay, if you insist. For we can determine the difference between the two force evaluations as:

This translates into a difference between the two recycle points of:

Alice: That strenghtens your argument quite a bit, I'd say. Still, I sometimes like to play the mathematician. While your result is a good one, it is not yet fully clear that it is the optimal one.

Bob: It's clear to me. What else could be better?

Alice: I think I agree, but for future reference, I would like to give a formal derivation. Soon we will get to much more complicated situations, where we can't use intuition anymore, and I would like to see exactly how I can prove that this is the best choice. So bear with me, while I try to minimize the difference between and directly, starting from the most general form:

As before, we can write and use the expansion

which gives for Eq. (
45):

In order to let the first order term vanish, we regain our previous results: is the best approximation, and the remaining term is second order in .

Alice: Yes, I fully agree that it is helpful to look at the results from several angles, to get more of a fingertip feeling of what it all means. Still, I wouldn't have been fully happy without a formal derivation. But let's move on.

## 2.3. Approximate Recycling

Bob: The question is, can we use our buest guess, or in your case, best derivation, for recycling?

Alice: At first sight, the second-order offset in Eqs. (44) and (47) may seem problematic, since we are aiming at developing a second order algorithm, with third-order errors. However, when we recycle the last force calculation in the next step we will always use it in multiplication with an extra power of . This means that the slight offset will cause only third order errors, on the same level of the truncation errors we are making anyway.

To show this explicitly, let us extend our notation, using to denote for the step starting at , and let us use tildes to indicate the approximate solution that we obtain when we recycle the previous force evaluation. Here are the expressions for the first step:

Here is the correct second step without recycling:

And here is the approximate second step when we use recycling:

More generally, we can express step number i without recycling as:

and with recycling as:

At each step, the difference between and is of third order in , as we can illustrate by evaluating down the differences in position at the end of the second step:

Using Eq. (47), we can expand the first term on the right hand side as follows

This result can in turn be used to expand the second term on the right-hand side of Eq.(53):

This means that in Eq. (53) the first term on the right-hand side dominates, and we find:

This is the promised result: recycling the force calculation at the end of one step introduces an extra error in the next step which is third order in . Since our basic algorithm is only second-order accurate in per step, the only effect is to change the magnitude of the leading error term, without affecting the second-order nature of the algorithm.

## 2.4. Summary

Bob: Great! So there is a place for recycling, after all. And the scheme we have found, for is just one of the classic second-order Runge-Kutta schemes, the one we already wrote down in Eq. (36). I had no idea that that algorithm could be used in a recycling fashion.

Alice: I didn't either. Normally, it is presented in the text books as a scheme where you simply have to evaluate the force two times in every step.

Bob: Most likely, the accuracy will be less per time step. However, if force evaluation is the most expensive part of the calculation, as it certainly is for the N-body problem, switching to recycling allows us to take a step size that is two times smaller, for the same number of force calculations.

Alice: That probably means that it depends on the particular application whether recycling is a good idea or not. Making the step size two times smaller means that the error per step will become eight times smaller, and the error for a fixed time interval four times smaller, at least approximately. If the extra error introduced by recycling makes the calculation error more than four times larger, it is not a good idea.

Bob: At least we have an extra tool in our toolbox. I like gathering extra algorithms! It would be fun to see under which circumstances we get a better result.

Alice: But not right now. I prefer to continue first our systematic investigation with paper and pencil, before we start coding things up again.

Bob: Fine.

Alice: Let us summarize what we have learned so far.

• If we use only one force calculation per step, without recycling any force evaluation results, we have to settle for a first-order scheme, the forward-Euler algorithm, Eq. (20).

• If we use two force calculations per step, without recycling any force evaluation results, we find a one-parameter family of second-order scheme, the classical second-order Runge-Kutta algorithms, given in Eq. (35).

• If we use only one new force calculation per step, but in addition we recycle the last force calculation from the previous step, we have the best of both worlds: we obtain a second-order scheme for the same price in terms of number of force evaluations as the first-order scheme. This clever scheme is given in Eq. (52), as the recycled version of what otherwise be Eq. (51), which is the same as Eq. (35) for , also given above as Eq. (36).

## 2.5. Two Force Evaluations per Step

Bob: You would think that we can now add a third force calculation per step, while recycling the last one. This would mean to new force calculations and one recycled one per step. And just as we found a second-order scheme when using one old and one new force, I seems pretty clear that we can now find a third-order scheme, using one old and two new forces.

Alice: I agree that that seems likely, but there is no guarantee. Remember that you can obtain a fourth-order scheme with four forces, but that a fifth-order scheme requires six forces. These combinatoric questions cannot be derived by analogy; I'm afraid we just will have to do the hard work of deriving them.

Our first task is to write the form of a general Runge-Kutta scheme with three force calculations per time step. Once we have this form, we can insist on the extra condition that the position of the final force calculation coincides with the position at the beginning of the next time step, at least to within second order in .

The general three-stage Runge-Kutta scheme looks like this:

Our analysis proceeds as before, but with more complex terms. Instead of Eq. (23), we now have

Instead of Eq. (25) we have

The expression for the next force evaluation can be derived similarly:

We thus find for the new position, at the end of our time step, as the generalization of Eq. (26)

As we did in Eqs. (27) and (28), we have to equate this expression term for term with the corresponding expressions in the Taylor series expansion

Using Eqs. (12), we can now write this as

Equating the coefficients for the various terms in Eqs. (61) and (63), we find for the first order in the relation

For the second order terms in we find

For the third order terms in involving the second derivative of the force, we find

while for the third order terms in involving the square of the first derivative of the force, we find

## 2.6. Two Examples

Bob: This is all nice and fine, but I'd like to see some concrete examples. Since we have four equations for six unknown variables, we expect to have a two-parameter freedom of choice. Let's use that freedom, and write down a few examples, to get a feeling for the type of algorithms we have at our hands.

Alice: A natural choice would be to require that the second force evaluation takes place in the middle of the time step , while the third force evaluation takes place at the end of the step . With these two extra conditions, barring unforeseen complications, we can expect to find a unique solution.

Let's check that. By substituting our two conditions into the four boxed equations we found above, we get:

The second and third equations above can be solved readily to find and , after which the first equation yields . The last equation then gives which implies . We thus arrive at the following third-order scheme:

Bob: Good! This is indeed one of the classical third-order Runge-Kutta algorithms.

Alice: Another natural choice is to spread the force calculations evenly over the interval, at times , , and , before starting the calculations for the new step at time .

Bob: Such a scheme obviously cannot be used for our current purposes. You need the third force calculation at the very end of the step, otherwise there is nothing to recycle.

Alice: That is true, but you asked for example algorithms, and I expect this to lead to another well-known scheme, so let us derive it here on the side. If nothing else, it can function as a check on our calculations. We require that and . Plugging this into the four conditions we have found before leads to:

The second and third equations imply and , and whith the first equation we find . The last equation yields which then determines . We thus arrive at:

Bob: Right you are: an alternative classical third-order Runge-Kutta scheme. I agree, it is good to know that we can reproduce this.

## 2.7. Recycle Conditions

Alice: It is time to return to our original objective, to find a third-order scheme that uses three force calculations per time step, two of which are computed anew, while the third one is being recycled from its use in the previous step. With two free parameters, we seem to have a good chance to find such a scheme.

As in Eqs. (45) and (47), we have to calculate the difference between the position at which the last force calculation of the previous step took place and the actual position at the end of that step. In Eq. (47) we only needed to let the term linear in vanish, in order to obtain a consistent second-order scheme. In the present case, for a third-order scheme, we need to let both the linear and quadratic terms in vanish. Using Eq. (59), we have:

Comparing this with Eq. (61), we have to the same order in :

Requiring the coefficients of and to match in the last two equations gives us two extra conditions:

and

Bob: You see, I guessed right! The six boxed equations here will allow us to determine the six variables .

Alice: Not so fast. Don't count your chickens before they are hatched!

Bob: I haven't heard that expression in a long time. Well, hatching shouldn't be too difficult.

Alice: Gathering all six equations, we get:

where we have already simplified the expressions somewhat by substituting, for example, one earlier relation and another one in simplified form as into the last two boxed equations.

Bob: So far, so good.

Alice: Or so it seems. Look, when we substitute the fourth relation into the second and third one, we obtain:

There is no way that we can satisfy these two equations simultaneously!

The last line implies that either or . Either case would imply , in contradiction with the requirement that .

Bob: I guess hatching was unsuccessful. That's a disappointment!

Alice: We have to conclude, somewhat surprisingly, that there just is no third-order recycling scheme. Whether we use two new force calculations per time step, or whether we recycle an additional force calculation from the previous time step, in both cases we wind up with a second-order algorithm.

Bob: That's a pity.

## 2.8. Remaining Freedom

which simplifies to

These are three equations for six unknown variables. If we introduce , , and , we get the following parametrized solutions:

This gives:

## 2.9. Summary

Bob: I'm not sure whether we've gained anything, by getting extra free parameters. I had hoped for a third-order scheme.

Alice: We haven't gained anything, but neither have we lost anything. Later, when we will apply these various algorithms, we can check to see whether any of the new parameters allow choices that give us more accurate results.

We can compare Eq. (81) with the non-recycling schemes, where we also perform two force calculations per step, and for which we obtained a second-order scheme as well. We found there, as Eq.(35):

Bob: Ah yes, that is interesting. Let us see whether we can obtain Eq. (82) from Eq. (81). In that case, we'd better not use the third force calculation in the calculation of the new position. This means:

or

Plugging this back into the first line of Eq. (81), we get for the new position:

just as in Eq. (82. Since , the expression for the second force becomes:

We conclude that, for the choice , Eq. (81) becomes Eq. (82). It all hangs together! The third force calculation in Eq. (81) effectively drops out, for this choice of parameters.

Alice: It is also instructive to compare this scheme with the second-order scheme we found based on one new force calculation and one recycled force calculation:

Bob: which in fact is exactly the previous set, Eq. (82), with the further restriction that .

Alice: Let us sum up. We conclude that we have found three different ways of constructing a second-order Runge-Kutta method:

1. Without recycling, we have Eq.(82), with two new force calculations per time step, and one free parameter;

2. With recycling, we have Eq.(87), with one new force calculation per time step, and no free parameters;

3. With recycling, we have Eq.(81), with two new force calculations per time step, and three free parameters.

Bob: Well done! Now it's time to leave this first-order differential equation behind us. I think we've learned enough, and I would prefer to go to the more realistic case of a second-order differential equation.
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